As for the question of why the United States did not ease its restrictive prewar immigration policy to allow more Jews sanctuary, he writes that America was "still not out of the Depression, with unemployment still high" and that "anti-immigration sentiment was so strong in Congress and among the general public that to open the question for debate seemed likely to worsen rather than to ease conditions; better to leave bad enough alone.
For the first 20 years or so after World War II, Novick observes, the Holocaust was "hardly talked about": survivors were encouraged not to look back but to look forward to building new lives, and the upbeat, universalist Zeitgeist of those postwar years made the Holocaust "an inappropriate symbol of the contemporary mood. In the s, all this began to change, as the Eichmann trial raised consciousness of the Holocaust "as an entity in its own right, distinct from Nazi barbarism in general.
Also Today in Books. There were strong reasons for Jewish organizations to ignore all this, however, and instead to conceive of Israel's difficulties as stemming from the world's having forgotten the Holocaust. The Holocaust framework allowed one to put aside as irrelevant any legitimate grounds for criticizing Israel, to avoid even considering the possibility that the rights and wrongs were complex.
Green points out what are side show issues that have gotten in the way to which I would add the debate about the one state versus two state issue which is all about American supporters of Palestinians with virtually no input from Palestinians whose ongoing tragedy continues while supporters are pre-occupied with that particular side show debate. So are the members of the Israeli Bilad party, like Haneen Zoabi. She has also endorsed the two state solution. There was more to Zionism than that.
Hence the massive Israeli military machine with its nuclear arsenal.
"The Holocaust in American Life" and "The Americanization of the Holocaust"
Since the Iranian revolution, Iran has gradually risen to the top of Israel oh-so-necessary enemies list. Jewish community as I did , and paid attention knows all this.
Whether they were redskins, commies, terrorists, or the Taliban, the plot has always remained the same. Call it the myth of national security — or, more accurately, national insecurity, since it always tells us who and what to fear. This statement of hers I also find puzzling. And btw I more often than not find myself in agreement with Annie Robbins.
Thank you for your comment weindeb. She must have misunderstood my first post. Or maybe she is a developing a line of thought that I am misreading. Foxman is a leading member of the organized Jewish establishment. How many other leaders of the Jewish establishment share his views? From whence do these views originate? To what degree are Judaism and Zionism steeped in this outlook? Is it fair to describe this mentality as racist?
I think so. The notion that the congregation of Israel includes those who have become assimilated to it through a universal calling is not unique to Judaism. The idea was popular among the Supersessionists in the Roman Catholic and Reformation era denominations of the Christian Church. The theologians simply disagreed over the qualifications of the various religious parties to claim membership in the body of the faithful remnant.
Klaus, ever think of going into heavy-equipment operation? Oh, boy, I sometimes think that the parsing and the over-parsing of various nuances of the meanings of phrases from people who are more or less of the same ethno-political persuasion could make an impatient soul like myself downright antisemantic. How many angels can balance on the point of a pin, or, as per the Lilliputians, should we crack the egg from the small or the large end?
I cannot help but think of that appalling American Manifest Destiny of the 19th Century and the apparent political requirement today, at least among the GOP buffoons, of recognizing and proclaiming American Exceptionalism come hell or high water. Dangerous stuff. Did the National Socialist standards for who was a Jew have the slightest connection to what sort of religious or even social concepts the person had?
Of course not, but many believers take the scriptural message of an overarching divine plan of redemption quite literally, i.
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About , of them were regular residents, the rest were refugees. The two groups sacrificed a total of forty thousand people on February 13 and 14, A number of factors have made the bombing a unique point of contention and debate. The Hague Conventions, addressing the codes of wartime conduct on land and at sea, were adopted before the rise of air power. Despite repeated diplomatic attempts to update international humanitarian law to include aerial warfare, it was not updated before the outbreak of World War II.
The Holocaust in American Life
The absence of positive international humanitarian law does not mean that the laws of war did not cover aerial warfare, but there was no general agreement of how to interpret those laws. The bombing of Dresden has been manipulated by Holocaust deniers and pro-Nazi polemicists—most notably by the British writer David Irving in his book The Destruction of Dresden—in an attempt to establish a moral equivalence between the death toll of Jews in German concentration camps and the indiscriminate killing of German civilians by Allied bombing raids.
Though no one involved in the bombing of Dresden was ever charged with a war crime, there are those that hold the opinion that the bombing was a war crime. The Nazi Holocaust was among the most evil genocides in history. Proponents of the war crime position argue the devastation known to be caused by firebombing was greater than anything that could be justified by military necessity alone, and this establishes their case on a prima facie basis. The Allies were aware of the effects of firebombing, as British cities had been subject to them during the Blitz. British historian Anthony Beevor wrote that Dresden was considered relatively safe, having been spared previous RAF night attacks, and that at the time of the raids there were up to , refugees in the city seeking sanctuary from the fighting on the Eastern Front.
Dugway was a high-security testing facility for chemical and biological weapons. The purpose of the replicas of German homes, which were repeatedly rebuilt after being intentionally burned down, was to perfect tactics in the fire bombing of German residential areas during World War II. The main goal was to find a tactic to achieve a fire storm in the city center.
He attended a humanist Gymnasium in Allenstein and continued with commercial training in Berlin. In he began studying architecture at the Technical University of Berlin; two years later he transferred to the Technical University of Munich, where in he graduated. Mendelsohn had long known Chaim Weizmann, later President of Israel. In , he opened an office in Jerusalem and planned Jerusalem stone buildings in the International Style that greatly influenced local architecture.
The method used to conduct the bombardment was irrelevant under the terms of existing international law. For example, Article 25 of the Annex to the Hague Convention stipulated that:. Attacks on built-up civilian areas were only authorized on the basis of absolute military necessity. The post-war accounts reveal many instances in which that was not the case.
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For example:. He asked Marshall about how the U. Marshall felt that whether or not to use the bomb was a political decision, not a military one and he felt that the President, not a general, should decide. I assumed he was being sarcastic, as the concept of defining the genocide as unique based on who the victims were is so absurd. When I was growing up as a secular Jew, I wished there had been something else on the radio or local television stations on Sunday mornings;-.
It is also absent from the text of the Jerusalem Talmud Sanhedrin 22a , where it would make no sense whatever.
I suppose that there is evidence that Jewish thinkers, pondering their texts, found the question of the equal value of human lives, Jewish and other, problematic to some degree. But I think weindeb is right to say or imply that ideas arising in studies and cloisters can be quite dangerous when they escape into the wider world. When I was growing up in the deepest and calmest recesses of the Church of England, like and unlike your Bible Belt I suppose, the call for forgiveness because of ignorance seemed to show reasonableness and generosity even in terrible circumstances.
But the attribution of ignorance can have, I now see, other and more worrying even if unintended aspects. I suppose it means the Romans, Jews, and Samaritans who rejected him, i. He came unto his own, and his own received him not e. So the ancients would have included the Romans among the prophetic actors and adversaries. In the War of the Jews, Josphus suggests that the prophecy regarding the scepter departing from Judah, Genesis , was actually a reference to Vespasian:.
Now this oracle certainly denoted the government of Vespasian, who was appointed emperor in Judea. In any event, the Christian scriptures go out of their way to record the roles played by Pilate, Herod Antipas, the Chief Priests and the Sanhedrin. The importance of the Second Temple is downplayed. Cyrus, who was of the sons of Japheth, built the Second Temple and the Divine Presence never rested on it:. Even if they had all come up in the time of Ezra, the Divine Presence would not have rested over the second Sanctuary, for it is written: God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem, [that means], although God has enlarged Japheth, the Divine Presence rests only in the tents of Shem.
The interpretation of the Sages, however is: Although God will beautify Japheth, insofar as Cyrus, who was of the sons of Japheth, built the Second Temple, the Shechinah did not rest therein. But where did it rest? In the First Temple, built by Solomon, who was of the sons of Shem. Most of the Jews elected to live in the Diaspora, even during the Second Commonwealth and some of the doctrines of the Pharisee Farsi? There have been a lot of discussions and comparisons regarding the influence of the Greeks on Hellenized Jews, but not as much about Persian influences in the Temple Cult established by Cyrus, in the Babylonian Jewish community, and the diaspora.
You would say anything to avoid taking responsibility for, or even acknowledging your deficiencies. Not that I would ever infer, or imply for that matter, that your anti-Judaism is lonely in there. Why is no journalist interested in reporting on this influence? By September , approximately , Jews had left Germany and , from annexed Austria. Of these, some 95, emigrated to the United States, 60, to Palestine, 40, to Great Britain, and about 75, to Central and South America, with the largest numbers entering Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Bolivia.
So Jews think of themselves as superior? That any skin off your nose? Does it pick your pocket or break your leg, or leave you in paine? Everybody has their illusions.
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Of course, in the case of male infants, there is a need for extreme caution and explicit medical instruction, backed by good legal help. Are you deliberately being obtuse or do you sincerely misunderstand what a belief in the Chosen People concept might mean beyond people normally having their illusions, especially when people actually believe such a concept even as in the United States even now all too many insist on American Exceptionalism and without a doubt accept that historic illusion if you wish to call it that of Manifest Destiny?
I mean assigning to oneself with innumerable justifications a god-like significance that enables one to do as he bloody well pleases, whether steal the land of Native Americans and kill them with impunity or establish also with impunity facts on the ground stretching from the Mediterranean to the Jordan and perhaps beyond. You seem to have a case either of mistaken identity or extrapolationism. The presence of Jews from eastern Europe Ostjuden , who had immigrated to Germany before, during, and after the war, was also a favorite subject of anti- Semitic incitement.
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