The nurse develops a plan of care based on the data and presents it to the patient for review and modification as needed. The nurse implements the plan and observes the outcomes of culturally congruent care. Therefore, using the enabler, the nurse systematically progresses through the major care constructs and social structure dimensions of the theory with the goal of providing culturally competent and congruent care.
Beginning at the top of the figure, culture care is the overriding component of the enabler followed by worldview and then cultural and social structure dimensions. Worldview refers to the way in which people of a culture perceive their particular surroundings or universe to form certain values about their lives. The cultural and social structure factors encompass components of technological; religious and philosophical; kinship; political and legal; economic; and educational factors.
These components are studied through participation, observation, and interview research techniques. In most cultures the family is an important factor in care. Wehbe-Alamah reported the findings from her qualitative ethnonursing study of the culture care of Syrian Lebanese immigrants in the midwestern United States. She used the three modes from the CCT to describe her discovery that the provision of culturally congruent care was centered around the family. Culture care preservation was maintained by requesting that nurses avoid pressuring relatives of deceased Muslim patients to give consent for organ donation or autopsy because Muslims believe their bodies are a gift from God and themselves as trustees of this gift In order to practice culture care accommodation in the provision of culturally congruent care for Syrian Muslims, the nurses and other health care providers in an inpatient setting were encouraged to consider negotiating the number of visitors and duration of visits.
Wehbe-Alamah found that the presence of a supportive network of family members and friends holds great importance for Syrian Americans as this is considered an essential caring practice as well as a social, religious, and cultural obligation. McFarland and Eipperle addressed the issue of integrating the theory of culture care diversity and universality into advanced practice nursing in the role of the family nurse practitioner FNP in providing culturally congruent care primary care contexts p. They discuss potential for future expansion of the theory in nurse practitioner practice.
Given that culture care is a core competency domain for family nurse practitioners U. Department Health and Human Services [DHHS], , they stress the need for nurse practitioners to recognize the often missing component of culture care in nursing. The nurse practitioner needs to be able to sensitively and competently integrate culture care into contextual routines, clinical ways, and approaches to primary care practice through role-modeling, policymaking, procedural performance and performance evaluation, and the use of the advanced practice nursing process.
McFarland and Eipperle list six criteria for theory application in advanced practice nursing:. Foster a focus on the whole person rather than the disease or illness. Be holistic in nature which is helpful to both practice and documentation. Facilitate autonomous nursing practice aspect of professionalism along with knowledge and service.
Encourage diverse ways of knowing, including empirics, ethics, aesthetics, personal knowing, and sociopolitical knowing p. Chapter Leininger, a, p. Modified by Madeleine Leininger, No formal courses existed to teach culture care and there was no integration of culture care content across the curriculum. This review of literature and pilot study offer nursing educators insight into factors influencing teaching culture care in nursing programs. Findings are useful for nurse educators in university settings as they seek to prepare nursing students to provide meaningful, satisfying and beneficial care for people who are similar to and different from them resulting in nurses prepared to provide culturally congruent care in a multicultural world.
Culturally diverse and similar students may be recruited and thrive in nursing programs where teaching culture care is embraced McFarland et al ; Pacquiao The Culture Care Theory with the Sunrise Enabler and ethnonursing research method provided a useful framework and method for this pilot study.
Comparison of Four Cultural Competence Models in Transcultural Nursing: A Discussion Paper
This unique use of the theory and method demonstrates its usefulness in dis34 CN Volume 28, Issue 1—2, April covering and describing the complex nature of teaching culture care within the environmental context of university schools of nursing. Conducting a larger scale research study is predicted to further support and substantiate the Culture Care Theory; thus contributing to building knowledge for the discipline of nursing and specifically the practice of nursing in the areas of nursing education and the provision of culturally congruent and competent care.
References Alpers RR and Zoucha R Comparison of cultural competence and cultural confidence of senior nursing students in a private southern university, Journal of Cultural Diversity 3: 9— Accessed at http:www. Caffrey RA, Neander W, Markle D and Stewart B Improving the cultural competence of nursing students: Results of integrating cultural content in the curriculum and an international immersion experience, Journal of Nursing Education — Edwards K Increasing cultural competence and decreasing disparities in health [Electronic version], Journal of Cultural Diversity 10 4 : — Gardner J Barriers influencing the CN success of racial and ethnic minority students in nursing programs, Journal of Transcultural Nursing — Hughes KH and Hood LJ Teaching methods and an outcome tool for measuring cultural sensitivity in undergraduate nursing students, Journal of Transcultural Nursing 57— Kulwicki A and Boloink BJ Assessment of level of comfort in providing multicultural nursing car by baccalaureate nursing students, Journal of Cultural Diversity 3: 40— Marchesani LS and Adams M Dynamics of diversity in the teaching-learning process: A faculty development model for analysis and action, New Directions in Teaching and Learning 9— Pacquiao D The relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings, Journal of Transcultural Nursing 28S—37S.
Contemporary Nurse 37— This study evaluated the effectiveness of four different nursing program curricula in developing culturally competent new graduates. A variety of curricular methods for achieving cultural competency were included. Two programs utilise a theory or a model developed by recognised transcultural expert nurses, Madeline Leininger and Josepha Campinha-Bacote.
One program utilised an integrated approach employing no specific model. One program utilised a free-standing two credit culture course within the curriculum, taught by nursing faculty with strong cultural preparation. A universally agreed-upon definition of what cultural competency is, is still lacking although definitions are more alike than dissimilar. Multiple curricular strategies are employed by nursing programs to teach cultural competence and may include free-standing cultural courses, immersion and international experiences of varying lengths.
The integration model may allow programs to skirt the problems associated with the addition of cultural content, seen by many as soft science in a biomedically laden curriculum Betancourt The ability of faculty to integrate culture into a curriculum remains a question, although a recent study suggests faculty are increasingly culturally competent Kardong-Edgren There are no articles in the literature specifically evaluating cultural competency of graduating nursing students.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cultural competency of graduating nursing students from programs using different kinds of curricular approaches. If one approach proved more efficacious, it might serve as a model for other programs struggling with best practices for teaching cultural content in their programs. This descriptive study used a post-test only design to measure the cultural competency of graduating BSN students from four geographically diverse nursing programs.
Five model constructs include: cultural desire, cultural awareness, cultural skill, cultural knowledge, and cultural encounters. Campinha-Bacote argues that the key to cultural competency is cultural desire, wanting to, rather than having to, learn and interact with other cultures. Results have been mixed. Senior nursing students experienced increased self confidence with international study abroad experiences St. The use of integration may have been a useful strategy to meet accreditation requirements, allowing those faculty who knew something about culture to address it and allowing those faculty who did not, to catch up.
KardongEdgren found that nursing faculty were culturally competent, although this is contrary to recent findings Kardong-Edgren et al ; Ryan et al Evaluating cultural competency in students is difficult because of a lack of appropriate instrumentation for this group. The CSES is the most frequently used tool for measuring cultural competency. Five items address each construct.
Completion time is approximately 10—15 minutes. Scores range from 25— and indicate whether a healthcare professional is operating at a level of cultural proficiency, cultural competence, cultural awareness or cultural incompetence. Higher scores depict a higher level of cultural competence. Descriptive statistics about the sample population were collected including age, gender, previous experience in a foreign country and ability to speak a foreign language. Schools were chosen in a snowball sample and after email conversations with representatives at each school.
Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing
Each site coordinator gained institutional review board IRB approval from their respective school. Study surveys were given out at each institution, in November or December, before fall graduation, depending on the program and after all program content had been completed. Table 1 shows return rates by program. Seventy-five per cent of students eligible for the study chose to participate. Each student survey was coded with a number corresponding to the school name. As participating students handed in their surveys, they were invited to sign their name on a slip of paper that was put in a bag for a drawing for a USD 50 incentive prize, after all surveys were collected.
Site coordinators mailed all study forms to a central location for statistical analysis. No curricular strategy appeared to be better than another. Tables 1 and 2 show the participant numbers, program response rates, program mean scores and descriptive statistics.
Statistics by program are reported in Table 2. Extensive demographic data including ethnicity, gender, age, international student status, experience abroad, and prior educational degrees are reported. One might tend to think that the free-standing course would foster better results as students are concentrating efforts and thought for a specific period of time on culture, yet there was no difference.
Programs with the most diverse student bodies, most international students, oldest and youngest student bodies, also did not fare better than any other program. Students from the program with the highest mean score had taken a previous anthropology course Table 5. They also reported the largest percentage of students who had been on foreign mission trips, demonstrating the opportunity for cultural encounters, a key element in the development of cultural competency Campinha-Bacote Yet, we evaluate student competencies of many other skills we value and expect graduates to perform at some minimum level of competency prior to graduation.
The fact that there are very few tools to evaluate cultural competency, something that is becoming increasingly important as the demographics of the US changes, may be indicative of what we as nurses truly value. However, with a self-report tool, students are not actually challenged to demonstrate cultural competency in any meaningful way. Technology will soon allow us to evaluate cultural competency in a more meaningful way. Some program are currently evaluating cultural competency with filmed standardised patient encounters, while others are writing cultural material into human patient simulation scenarios.
In an attempt to study the effec- provide nurse educators with focused research tiveness of four different nursing program cur- questions to explore as they continue the jourricula in developing culturally competent new ney towards cultural competence in nursing graduates, we found that there was no statis- education. Journal of Cultural Diversity 3: 9— The Paper.
Washington DC: Author. Cultural diversity in the nursing education Perhaps an even more fundamental question is curriculum:A guide for implementation. Journal of boards been prepared in cultural competency? Transcultural Nursing 25S—27S. Journal of within nurse education should be. Over 20 Professional Nursing — Journal of Transcultural Nursing 20S—22S.
OH: Transcultural C. Campinha-Bacote J Cultural competence in nursing curricula: How are we doing 20 years later? Journal of Nursing Education — Transcultural C. Journal of Nursing Scholarship — Nursing Outlook — The Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health 9: 6— Journal of Nursing Education 22— Jones ME and Bond ML Personal adjustment, language acquisition and culture learning in short-term cultural immersion.
International Review 2: 33— Journal of Professional Nursing — Kardong-Edgren S Cultural competency of nursing faculty. Journal of Nursing Education 46, — Journal of Cultural Diversity 3: 40— San Francisco: McGraw-Hill. Lipson J and DeSantis L Current approaches to integrating elements of cultural competence in nursing education.
Journal of Transcultural Nursing 10S—20S. National League for Nursing New York. Napholz L A comparison of self-reported cultural competency skills among two groups of nursing students: Implications for nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education 81— An exploratory investigation. Journal of Nursing Education 31— Journal of Transcultural Nursing — Zorn C, Ponick D and Peck S An analysis of the impact of participation in an international study program on the cognitive development of senior baccalaureate nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education 67— Contemporary Nurse 45— This is in recognition that Europe is becoming more culturally diverse.
Globalisation has increased the multicultural character of many countries, adding to the number of languages, religions, ethnic and cultural backgrounds found in Europe and other continents. In Australia, in contrast to many other countries, the diversity of the population was well established and recognised before multiculturalism was first coined in the late s OMA However, the response was in the main related to the diversity of the immigrant population minimising significant aspects of diversity such as class, gender and culture and care beyond multiculturalism.
This has had enormous implications for nursing and health care Milner Communication between cultures remains a critical issue for the cultural understanding necessary for transcultural nursing practice to be effective. In more recent years, equal emphasis has been placed on the impact that social and organisational structures have on our health Papadopoulos In order to foster excellence in transcultural nursing practice, the development and wide application of transcultural nursing standards is of paramount importance to advancing excellence in transcultural nursing practice.
It can be argued that transcultural nursing theory and models are the most appropriate for the 21st century, as they cogently address the deficits of the bio-medical model which dominated both medicine and nursing in the 20th century. As the articles in this section demonstrate, transcultural nurses have the knowledge and tools to help them transform nursing and health care in many places in the world. User friendly theoretical frameworks facilitate both the production of knowledge and its application.
They demonstrate how through the application of this theory, education, research and practice are connected as essential components toward the provision of culturally congruent care to meet the healthcare needs of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities by family nurse practitioners. This will go some way towards eliminating the health inequalities experienced by many marginalised communities and individuals. We learn that two of the key foundations of the traditional Indian medicine philosophy are, the seven aspects of life and the essence of a holistic individual.
Knowing these, helps us understand the personhoods of the people of this community. Amazingly, even though differences exist in human behaviours and actions among cultures, the seven values of the sacred life discussed in this article, are also similar among cultures and different religions. These are respect, honesty, truth, humility, compassion, wisdom and unconditional love.
Although the five tenets of Islam provide a strong practical framework for everyday living, they too, promote the values of respect, honesty, truth, humility, compassion, wisdom and unconditional love. These values come alive in the descriptions of the many Muslim generic care beliefs and practices provided in this article. Wise use of such information can help nurses provide sensitive and appropriate care. On the other hand much has been published on how families in collectivist societies, such as the Lebanese, prefer to manage such information and request that any such diagnosis is not given to the patient direct.
The continued development and application of research based Transcultural nursing insights has still a greater contribution to make to the peoples of the world as it realises its potential to contribute to the elimination of health inequalities.
Camphina-Bacote J The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care, Journal of Transcultural Nursing — Hubbert AO A partnership of a Catholic faith-based health system, nursing and traditional American Indian medicine practitioners, Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing, 2nd edn, Contemporary Nurse special issue 28 1—2 : 64— Leininger MM Twenty-five years of knowledge and practice development transcultural CN nursing society annual research conferences, Journal of Transcultural Nursing 9: 72— Omeri A and Ahern M Utilizing culturally congruent strategies to enhance recruitment and recognition of Australian Indigenous nursing students, Journal of Transcultural Nursing — Omeri A Epilogue: Advancing transcultural nursing through collaboration, Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing, 2nd edn, Contemporary Nurse special issue 28 1—2 : — Contemporary Nurse 48— Discussion emphasises the value of care and caring as the essence of advanced practice nursing through the use of three modes of care, use of the Sunrise and other enablers, and the ethnonursing method.
Education, research, practice, and key concepts of the theory are connected as essential components toward the provision of culturally congruent care to meet the healthcare needs of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities by family nurse practitioners. In their scholarly dialogue, Fawcett et al explored the development and function of advanced practice nursing within the current health care system of the United States and discussed nursing theory in relation to the preparation for and application within the advanced practice role.
More specifically, as discussed by Newman and McAllister as above, we are offering the special contributions this theory has been making to the collective knowledge base of advanced practice nursing theory. Given that culture care is a core competency domain for family nurse practitioners United States Department Health and Human Services [DHHS] , it is our view that nurse practitioners need to recognise the need, validity, and missing component of culture care in nursing. The nurse practitioner needs to be able to sensitively and competently integrate culture care into contextual routines, clinical ways, and approaches to primary care practice through role modeling, policy making, procedural performance and performance evaluation, and the use of the advance practice nursing process.
As advanced practice nurses who are highly skilled and educated, nurse practitioners have a moral duty and obligation to use their knowledge and skills in creative ways through nursing actions and decisions to provide culturally competent care in clinical and nonclinical contexts to meet or assist with the diverse needs of all people. It is their responsibility to do more than just render high quality care on a one to one basis with their clients.
Through the many and various roles that nurse practitioners express their leadership and skills, their nursing perspective influences the actions and decisions of the larger body group, committee, organisation, institution in which they are a participant. The focal application of the theory is upon individuals, families, groups, communities, and institutions in diverse health contexts Leininger b: It is essential for the nurse practitioner in a primary care context to establish a trusting relationship with clients to assist them in their endeavours to prevent and treat disease and move toward health and wellness.
Care and caring are cornerstones for developing that trusting relationship. Therefore, care and caring are essential skills for nurse practitioners to develop, express, and sustain with clients throughout each healthcare encounter. Leininger a: 8 developed the three modes of care, defined and described as: 1.
Culture care preservation and-or maintenance: those assistive, supportive, facilitative, or CN enabling professional acts or decisions that help cultures retain, preserve, or maintain beneficial care beliefs and values, or to face handicaps or death. Culture care accommodation and-or negotiation: those assistive, supportive, facilitative, or enabling professional acts or decisions that help cultures adapt to or negotiate with others for culturally congruent, safe, and effective care for their health, well-being, or to deal with illness or dying.
Culture care restructuring and-or repatterning: those assistive, supportive, facilitative, or enabling professional acts or decisions that help people reorder, change, modify, or restructure their lifeways and institutions for better or beneficial healthcare patterns, practices, or outcomes.
These modes allow for individualised approaches to care actions and decisions as well as incorporating into nursing practice the diverse ways of knowing within cultures, individuals, groups, communities, or institutions. We the authors have used the Culture Care Theory in our own nurse practitioner practices through the use of the three modes of care when establishing a client relationship with individuals, families, groups, or institutions; when considering the manner of assessment to be performed; and, by integrating generic care approaches when mutually establishing plans of care actions and decisions with clients.
Using open-ended questions, active listening techniques, and appropriate language and touch are definitive ways to demonstrate caring and facilitate client trust and sharing during the assessment process as well as throughout all phases of the nursing process. The Culture Care Theory factors influencing culture care values, practices, and beliefs and which are embedded in worldview include but are not limited to language, philosophy, religion and spirituality, kinship, social, political, legal, educational, economic, technological, ethnohistorical, and environmental context Leininger b: 79 as is represented by the Sunrise Enabler.
The Sunrise Enabler is used by the nurse practitioner in a primary care context to reflect upon the client situation and to develop care actions and decisions when assisting clients toward health and wellness. Client situations may include chronic illnesses such as diabetes, pulmonary disease, dyslipidemia, or hypertension; lifestyle concerns such as alcohol, substance, or tobacco abuse, weight management, growth and development or issues relating to adult stages of life, domestic violence or child abuse, elder care planning or difficulties; family planning; immunizations; and, psychological-mental health matters.
The culture care theory guides nurses to use generic or folk care, nursing care, and professional care-cure practices to provide culturally congruent care for well-being, health, growth, and survival and to face handicaps or death Leininger b: Integrating generic and professional care concepts into advanced practice nursing within the nurse practitioner role is essential to achieving beneficial care outcomes for the client.
Traditional measures for emotional or psychosocial comfort include spiritual rituals using candles, incense, tobacco, or aromatic oils. Professional acceptance of emic care modes in complement with or in place of or with professional care modes where safe and appropriate assist the client in building a trust relationship with the nurse practitioner and helps to promote acceptance of professional care practices. Worldview is the perception of the client. This holds significance for nurse practitioners in primary care contexts. Most importantly, professional nurses practice nursing decision making and action have a societal and legal mandate to always planning Leininger c: Tran- miliar with Western medicines and treatments scultural nursing promotes and practices from being demeaned or shunned when using integrative care so that the client gets the their folk remedies.
Establishing mutual and better of the two worlds of knowing and genuine relationships between the healthcare therapies. These health by means of comprehensive health main- attributes include trust and mutual respect in tenance, disease prevention, or health restora- caring, healing, curing, and well-being; collabotion. The Acculturation Healthcare and Assess- within their living environments; and seeking ment Guide can be readily incorporated into competent, creative, and compassionate practithe initial as well as maintenance health assess- tioners Leininger d: Through means of the three modes of care as previously described, the family nurse practitioner is able to apply the core competencies and specialty-specific domains of advanced practice in primary care contexts to meet the needs of clients.
The Culture Care Theory is a useful framework to guide autonomous advanced nursing practice by guiding assessment of lifestyle, traditional and nontraditional generic care practices, and the non-care practices of individuals, families, groups, or institutions. Each set of specialty competencies builds upon this set of core competencies and throughout the competencies, client is defined as the individual, family, group, and-or community. Family nurse practitioner competencies include all six of the core competencies with the addi- CN tion of the seventh domain of cultural competence as core for the FNP specialty.
Their efforts resulted in national standards for nurse practitioner practice with supporting performance indicators. Cultural competence, however, is not an area that the family nurse practitioner addresses separately with clients, but rather it is incorporated into the advanced practice approaches taken for each of the core competencies.
In other words, cultural competence is integrated into nurse practitioner practice nursing assessment and care actions and decisions in the primary care context through the situationally appropriate use of the three care action modes previously described and discussed. Being culturally competent, for example, is vital for establishing the nurse practitioner—client relationship, for effectiveness in the teaching—coaching role, or when assisting clients to manage or negotiate the healthcare delivery system.
In their study, Fiandt et al explored three aspects of nurse practitioner practice when viewed as complementary to physician practice: use of the nursing model; identification of the vulnerable characteristics of clients; and health promotion activities. For our purposes, we will focus on the first and third parameters. The complementary nature of nurse practitioner practice, although addressed in theory in education literature, is not reflected in the research describing nurse practitioner practice.
Globally, national nursing accreditation bodies have called for the integration of cultural learning in nursing education. These essentials of Doctorate of Nursing Practice DNP education are to focus the educator and student toward meeting three goals in preparing them as graduates for practice. One of the three goals is to use science-based theories and concepts to determine the nature and significance of health and healthcare delivery phenomena; describe the actions and advanced strategies to enhance, alleviate, and ameliorate health and healthcare delivery phenomena as appropriate; and evaluate outcomes.
Research is a key component in developing nursing knowledge and thereby a key component of diverse ways of knowing. The ethnonursing method was developed to study specific nursing care phenomena as well as the Culture Care Theory. The ethnonursing method assists in discovering differences between generic or naturalistic care and professional nursing care.
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When Leininger studied the Gadsup of New Guinea in the s, she found the use of the terms emic and etic useful as previously defined herein in studying care and other nursing phenomena. The use of these terms assisted Leininger to discover the diverse meanings and ideas of the people regarding the values, beliefs, and nursing rituals and symbols of care, health and illness. In this first ethnonursing study, Leininger began to develop several enabling guides, such as the Sunrise Enabler and the Observation-ParticipationReflection OPR Enabler to help her study the lifeways of the people of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea Leininger a: For instance, the Stranger to Trusted Friend Enabler can assist the clinician to move from a Distrusted Stranger to a Trusted Friend to establish favorable relationships with clients Leininger a: The OPR guides researchers and clinicians to devote a period of time making observations CN before becoming an active participant in the research or clinical process.
The reflective phase provides an opportunity to obtain important and confirmatory data from the people. The guide can be adapted for use to assist the nurse practitioner in client encounters in direct clinical practice contexts. A period of meeting, greeting, and visiting with the client in the examination room is essential to allow the nurse practitioner sufficient time for further observation while assisting the client to become more comfortable with the situation, thus enabling the nurse practitioner to obtain a more accurate health history and physical assessment.
Reflection is also a valuable part of the nursing process as the nurse practitioner clarifies valuable information in reflecting findings back with the client and confirming acceptability and understanding of the diagnostic findings and plan of care with the client. These essentials of DNP education will be critical to guiding the process of meeting the three primary goals toward preparing graduates for advanced nursing practice, which are to: 1. Integrate nursing science with knowledge from ethics, biophysical, psychosocial, analytical, and organizational sciences as the basis for the highest level of nursing practice; 2.
Use science-based theories and concepts [such as culture care] to determine the nature and significance of health and healthcare delivery phenomena; describe the actions and advanced strategies [such as the three care modes] to enhance, alleviate, and ameliorate health and healthcare delivery phenomena as appropriate; and, evaluate outcomes; and 3. Develop and evaluate new practice approaches based on nursing theories [such as the Culture Care Theory] and theories from other disciplines.
AACN 9 Doctorate of Nursing Practice DNP evidencebased projects will create new nursing knowledge for both the discipline and practice of the profession of advanced practice nursing as well as provide a basis for advancement of the nurse practitioner role. Nurse practitioners are endeavoring to comprehend and integrate culture care precepts into practice, but they need more education about culture care and their education needs to be integral to their generic ASN, BSN early professional education and clinical learning processes because change is easiest when it starts at the beginning.
In a recent unpublished pilot study by Mixer , the researcher found that while nursing faculty valued cultural diversity, provided and encouraged clinical experiences with opportunities for students to care for culturally diverse clients, and role modeled culturally sensitive awareness behaviors, the faculty did not use any formal conceptual nursing model or theory such as the Culture Care Theory as a basis for their teachings. Family nurse practitioners practicing in primary care contexts need to broaden their practice by also demonstrating leadership in the community as a means toward developing a wider system of caring and healing locally, nationally, and globally.
Participation in professional organisations is also important to foster the development of the profession. We the authors propose these outcomes can be achieved through clinical, educational, and research applications of the theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality with the use of three modes of care and the Sunrise Enabler and the ethnonursing research method.
Putting theory into practice entails the element of the theory, in addition to an information gathering process; knowledge of culture and care practices; planning of healthcare; assessment; research; and establishing a caring healing system Germain — Acknowledgements The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the theoretical contributions of Dr Madeleine Leininger with appreciation for her ongoing support.
Avron J The neglected history and therapeutic choices for abdominal pain: A nationwide survey of physicians and nurses, Archives of Internal Medicine — Birkholtz G and Viens D Medicaid claims data comparisons for nurse practitioners, physicians assistants, and primary care physicians in New Mexico, Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 3— Birkholtz G and Viens D Developing research methodologies to compare primary care nurse practitioners and physician practices, The American Journal for Nurse Practitioners: 9—10, 13—14, 17—18, 27—28, 31— Brown S and Grimes D A meta-analysis of nurse practitioners and nurse midwives in primary care, Nursing Research — Hall J Performance quality, gender, and professional role: A study of physicians and nonphysicians in 16 ambulatory practices, Medical Practice — Mixer S Faculty expressions, patterns, and practices related to teaching culture care.
Moody N, Smith P and Glenn L Client characteristics and practice patterns of nurse practitioners and physicians, Nurse Practitioner 94—96, 99—, — Salkever DS Episode based efficiency comparisons between physicians and nurse practitioners, Medical Care — Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury, MA. Assessment of Health Status ii. Diagnosis of Health Status iii. Plan of Care and Implementation of Treatment B. Management of Patient Illness Domain 2. Domain 3. Domain 4. Domain 5. Domain 6. Domain 7. Standard II: Professional efficacy whereby practice is structured in a nursing model and enhanced by autonomy and accountability.
Competency 2. Standard III: Clinical leadership that influences and progresses clinical care, policy, and collaboration through all levels of health service. Entrenched social divisions and differences and the local, contingent character of health inequity demand close social investigation to underpin effective intervention through public policy. Contemporary Nurse 64— Professional seller? Try My Products, a free Trade Me tool that helps you manage your listings. View community. Announcements Message board Help. Register Log in. Search Trade Me. Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing.
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